Additional Sludge Information and Supporting Documents:


For Information about sludge victims, or to report incidents, visit and contact Helane Shields at


For videos of victims testimonies, contact Clarence Williams at 


More protective local sludge ordinances:



The role of municipalities in regulating the land application of sewage sludge:



Guidance for workers exposed to Class B municipal sewage sludge:



An excellent summary of corporate suppression of science and retaliation against independent scientists: Robert Kuehn. The Suppression of Environmental Science

64.   See also Introductory Remarks, Documents 1-60, and Document 75.


Recent, peer reviewed published research and statements challenging the science and risk assessments of current land application policies:

65. [published version of Case for Caution]


66. M.B. McBride. Toxic metals in sewage sludge-amended soils: has promotion of beneficial use

      discounted the risks? For URL, contact


67.National Academy of Sciences 2002 report Biosolids Applied to Land  See also Documents 18, 28, and 29.


   68. Because of many data gaps and uncertainties and the mounting anecdotal and first documented 

       evidence linking sludge spreading to adverse health effects, EPA states that it is no longer

       promoting land application.  EPA transfers the entire responsibility and decision of what to do

       with sludge to states, counties, and towns, emphasizing local control. States such as Virginia

       and Pennsylvania should note that a Nov 30 2004 NH Court Ruling cites the Clean Water Act 

       as authorizing local control  [over state control] of land application of sewage sludge.

       For complete documentation, contact


69.    EPA Inspector General Memo warns that EPA has not done the basic research to assess the risks of land application.  September 6, 2002 Memo. See also Document 2 and 67. 


70.    On CBS Evening News, EPA’s Paul Gilman admits that current land application policies may not be safe and that the whole issue needs to be “revisited.”

       “Sewage Fertilizer Under Fire” CBS Evening News Oct 29, 2003


71.    Dec. 23, 2003, EPA’s Tracy Mehan and Paul Gilman write a joint letter to Julie Gerberding, Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, urgently requesting help in investigating the mounting health complaints: “ Based on the frequency and intensity of complaints we receive regarding human health effects of land applied sludge, we feel the issue is an important priority for both of our agencies.” Document 71


72.    CFSL response to industry claims that land application is popular, beneficial, and safe:

Oct 29 2003 letter to CBS News  President, Andrew Heyward.


73.    University of North Carolina scientist resigns from Water Environment Federation (WEF) committee, citing conflict of interest and resultant inability of WEF to do independent and unbiased research on health impacts of land application:

          Dr. Steve Wing’s Nov 4, 2004 letter to Lola Olabode.  See also Introductory Remarks and Documents 3, 20, 42, and 45.

74.    Chart comparing metal concentrations in dairy manure with metals contained in Class A EQ sludge sold in bags as fertilizer:

          Document 74.

75.    EPA Whistleblowing:

          Document 75.


76.    US Compost Metal Standards Compared to Those of Other Countries:

          Document 76.


77.    Dairy Farmer Warns About Sludge Use:

          Document 77.


78.    Comments about the Louisiana Dept of Health study that investigated adverse impacts from sludge exposure:

          Document 78.


79.    Response to Rusin, Pepper, et al:

          Document 79.


80.    Corporate Corruption of Science. Special issue of the International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health. To access articles, visit:


81.    Symptoms reported and documented by neighbors exposed to land applied sewage sludges are identical to those reported by wastewater treatment workers exposed to endotoxins: [ L.A.M Smit, S.Spaan, D. Heederik. Endotoxin exposure and symptoms in wastewater treatment workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 48: 3039 (2005)]
"Wastewater treatment workers reported a wide range of symptons that may be work-related. Microbial exposures such as endotoxin seem to play a causal role."


82.    Soil that has been treated with metal-contaminated sludge shows radical reduction in microbial diversity: [J. Gans, M. Wolinsky, J. Dunbar. Computational improvements reveal great bacterial diversity and high metal toxicity in soil. Science, vol. 309, issue 5739, 1387-1390, 26 Aug 2005. ]
"More than one million distinct genomes occurrred in the pristine soil, exceeding previous estimates by two orders of magnitude. Metal pollution reduced diversity more than 99.9%, revealing the highly toxic effect of metal contamination, especially for rare taxa."


83.    Response to Ned Beecher's letter to The Scientist:

          Document 83.


84.    Response to the Brunswick Biosolids Peer Review Committee Report:

          Document 84.


85.    Myths About Land-Applied Sewage Sludge:

          Document 85.


86.    Source Tracking of Microbial Aerosols Emitted at Class B Biosolids Land Application Sites:

          Document 86.


87.    Innovative Renewable Energy Technology Using Sludge:

          [Document 87(1)] [Document 87(2)] [Document 87(3)] .


88.    The Sludge Scam -Part 1:

          Document 88.


89.    The Sludge Scam -Part 2:

          Document 89.


90.    Converting Sludges to Clean, High Quality Energy:

          Document 90.


91.    Harrison, E. Z. Oakes, S.R. et al. Organic chemicals in sewage sludges, Science of the Total Environment, 2006


92.    Chad A. Kinney, et al. Survey of Organic Wastewater Contaminants in Biosolids Destined for Land Application, Environ. Sci. Technol., ASAP Article, September 13, 2006

          Document 92.


93.    Death of a Farm

          Document 93.


94.    Qui Tam Complaint

          Document 94.


95.    NH Sludge Company gets Toxics Action's Dirty Dozen Award

          Document 95.


96.    Kinney, Furlong, Zaugg et al (2006). Survey of Organic Wastewater Contaminants in Biosolids Destined for Land Application.

          Document 96.


97.    March 12, 2004 Congressional Testimony by F.Edwin Hallman, responding to James W. Ellison and to EPA's letter denying the petition for a sludge moratorium by the Center For Food Safety and 82 other health, farm, and environmental organizations.

          Document 97.


98.    Health Survey of Residents Living Near Farm Fields Permitted to Receive Biosolids. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health, Vol.62. No.1. /The findings suggest an increased risk for certain respiratory, gastrointestinal, and other diseases among residents living near farm fields on which the use of biosolids was permitted.

          Document 98.


99.    Smart Guide on Sludge Use and Food Production

          Document 99.


100.    Citizens for Sludge-Free Land post comment on Docket ID No.EPA-HQ-ORD 2008-0547. (text)

          Document 100.


101.    Citizens for Sludge-Free Land post comment on Docket ID No.EPA-HQ-ORD 2008-0547. (refs)

          Document 101.


102.    July 11,2009 Letter to the Editor by Murray McBride, Cornell Professor of Crop and Soil Science

          Document 102.


103.    Biosolids Facts. Biosolids is another word for Land Applied Sewage Sludge.

          Document 103.


104.    Courts Finally Recognize Spreading Sewage Sludge on Farmland is A Very Bad Idea.

          Document 104.


105.    Case For Caution Revisited: Health and Environmental Impacts of Application of Sewage Sludges to Agricultural Land.

          Document 105.


106.    Virginia Farmers Deceived About Sewage Sludge Safety.

          Document 106.


107.    EPA Fired Oil-Degradation Expert Concerned about Deepwater Oil Rigs.

          Document 107.


108.    The Gatekeepers: A Summary of Court Records in Civil Actions Filed by David L.Lewis, Ph.D., R.A. McElmurray,III and G. William Boyce. Land Application of Sewage Sludge (Biosolids): 1997-2010

          Document 108.


109.    Letter to Farmers from Biosolids-Free Nova Scotia.

          Document 109.


110.    UGA Wins, Scientific Integrity Looses:

          Document 110.


111.    Contents of Sewage Sludge-Tip of the Iceberg.

          Document 111.


112.    In silico screening for unmonitored, potentially problematic high production volume chemicals prone to sequestration in biosolids.

          Document 112.


113.    Uptake of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products by Soybean Plants from Soils Applied with Biosolids and Irrigated with Contaminated Water.

          Document 113.


114.    Lewis' Response to EPA-UGA Settlement Proposal.

          Document 114.


115.    A Critical Review of the U.S. EPA's Risk Assessment for the Land Application of Sewage Sludge.

          Document 115.


116.    Zinc-induced antibiotic resistance in activated sludge bioreactors.

          Document 116.


117.    Avoid using composts and soil amendments that contain sewage sludge.

          Document 117.


118.    Biosolids is not a Fertilizer.

          Document 118.